Glossary of Terms

+    Airworthiness Directives

An airworthiness directive (commonly abbreviated as AD) is a notification to owners and operators of certified aircraft that a known safety deficiency with a particular model of aircraft, engine, avionics or other system exists and must be corrected. Compliance with Airworthiness Directives is mandatory.

ADs usually result from service difficulty reporting by operators or from the results of aircraft accident investigations. They are issued either by the national civil aviation authority of the country of aircraft manufacture or of aircraft registration. When ADs are issued by the country of registration they are almost always coordinated with the civil aviation authority of the country of manufacture to ensure that conflicting ADs are not issued.

In detail, the purpose an AD is to notify aircraft owners:

  • that the aircraft may have an unsafe condition, or
  • that the aircraft may not be in conformity with its basis of certification or of other conditions that affect the aircraft's airworthiness, or
  • that there are mandatory actions that must be carried out within the stated compliance time to ensure continued safe operation, or
  • that, in some urgent cases, the aircraft must not be flown until a corrective action plan is designed and carried out


+    Alert Service Bulletins

Service Bulletins (SBs) or Alert Service Bulletins (ASBs) are issued by the manufacturer of aeronautical products on matters requiring the attention of the aircraft operator and are limited generally to items affecting safety. By industry regulatory standards compliance with Alert Service Bulletins is considered essential, Cougar however manages them as if mandatory. SBs and ASBs provide instructions for modifications, inspections, or other actions and establish required compliance times.


+    Customer Service Notification

Customer Service Notices (CSNs) are prepared by the manufacturer of aeronautical products and issued to furnish the aircraft operator with information regarding product improvement modifications and parts changes. By industry standards compliance with CSNs is not considered essential.


+    Aviation Occurrence

“aviation occurrence” means:

(a) any accident or incident associated with the operation of aircraft; and
(b) any situation or condition that the Transportation Safety Board (TSB) has reasonable grounds to believe could, if left unattended, induce an accident or incident described in paragraph (a).


+    Dangerous Goods

Please refer to the International Air Transport Association's (IATA) web site FAQs for information pertaining to Dangerous Goods: http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/cargo/dangerous_goods/Pages/faq.aspx

Area's of importance:

  • Classification
    • What are dangerous goods?
  • Operations
    • We have done everything correct but the airline has refused to carry our shipment. What can we do?


+    Reportable Aviation incident

A "reportable aviation incident" means an incident resulting directly from the operation of an airplane having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 5 700 kg, or from the operation of a rotorcraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2 250 kg, where:


  1. an engine fails or is shut down as a precautionary measure,
  2. a transmission gearbox malfunction occurs,
  3. smoke or fire occurs,
  4. difficulties in controlling the aircraft are encountered owing to any aircraft system malfunction, weather phenomena, wake turbulence, uncontrolled vibrations or operations outside the flight envelope,
  5. the aircraft fails to remain within the intended landing or take-off area, lands with all or part of the landing gear retracted or drags a wing tip, an engine pod or any other part of the aircraft,
  6. any crew member whose duties are directly related to the safe operation of the aircraft is unable to perform the crew member's duties as a result of a physical incapacitation that poses a threat to the safety of any person, property or the environment,
  7. depressurization occurs that necessitates an emergency descent,
  8. a fuel shortage occurs that necessitates a diversion or requires approach and landing priority at the destination of the aircraft,
  9. the aircraft is refuelled with the incorrect type of fuel or contaminated fuel,
  10. a collision, a risk of collision or a loss of separation occurs,
  11. a crew member declares an emergency or indicates any degree of emergency that requires priority handling by an air traffic control unit or the standing by of emergency response services,
  12. a slung load is released unintentionally or as a precautionary or emergency measure from the aircraft, or
  13. any dangerous goods are released in or from the aircraft.
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